Writing a professional research paper is in part about learning how to teach oneself, which is a key skill the BUE is seeking to develop in all their students. To encourage young researchers in their scholarly work, we at the BUE pay special attention to those who write first-rate research papers.

 

Business Administration Thesis 
Thesis: The Relationship between Customer Experience and Brand Equity: An Applied Study on CLothing Industry in Egypt

Author: Zena Talhawy
Supervisor: Dr Rasha El Gendi
Email: relgendy@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between customer experience and brand equity from a customer’s perspective within the clothing industry in Egypt. The stimulus for the study evoked from an interest in customer experience. Marketing Science Institute (2014, 2016) highlights that customer experience is a challenging topic for many researchers. As customers’ interactions with brand through infinite touchpoints led to the increased focus on customer experience (Lemon & Verhoef, 2016). Johnston and Kong (2011) mentioned that superior customer experience is important to leverage customer satisfaction and loyalty. Nowadays, in the retailing environment the main objective of many businesses is to create superior and ideal form of customer experience in this industry (Verhoef, et al., 2009). Klaus and Maklan (2013) state that consumer choice for a brand during customer journey is influenced by customer experience. David Ogilvy, who is known as “The Father of Advertising”, described brand as “Brand is something what remains us when our factory is burned” (Chakraborty, 2017); these words points out to the importance of a valuable brand to any company, store, organization, etc. because strong brand can lead to competitive advantage in the market. Kansra (2014) mentioned that brand equity in clothing industries is affected by brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty. To date, the extant literature has placed emphasis on conceptualizing and establishing customer experience measurements and dimensions (Klaus & Maklan, 2012; Lemke, Clark, & Wilson, 2011) Thus, additional researcher investigating further consequences of customer experience is needed (Lemon & Verhoef, 2016). Therefore, this research aims to close this gap and investigate in-depth the relationship between customer experience and brand equity from a customer’s perspective in a B2C setting. Further, this study aims to identify the customer experience touchpoints that are highly related to different brand equity dimensions.

Thesis: Investigating the Relationship Between Customer Experience and Customer Retention within the Egyptian Telecommunication Sector

Author: Yousef Magdy
Supervisor: Dr Rasha El Gendi
Email: relgendy@bue.edu.eg

Abstarct
A company’s success is based on its ability to understand its customers and provide them with the product or service that they might need. Companies aim to go through this process in order to become able to retain their customers in the future. Therefore, it is essential for companies to develop and implement marketing strategies and channels toward this goal. Customers’ demands change overtime which requires from companies to provide a superior customer service to overcome obstacles such as switching to another service provider. In addition, companies need to understand the customer experience touch points from customers’ own perception in order to overcome any negative outcomes that might occur. There have been no studies that discussed before the relationship between customer experience and customer retention in detail. Accordingly, this study will examine this relationship and provide an in-depth understanding on how customer experience touch points have an influence on customer retention in the telecommunication sector in Egypt.
The results of this research demonstrate that there is a relationship between customer experience touch points and customer retention. This research detects the most significant touch points that are highly related to customer retention from the customers’ own point of view.


Thesis: The Impact of Facebook Applications and Activities on Young Consumer Purchase Intentions in Cairo

Author: Sarah Samir
Supervisor: Dr. May Fahmy
Email: may.fahmy@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
This study aims to assess the impact of Facebook applications and activities on consumer purchase intention. Five dimensions were employed in measuring Facebook social applications on consumer purchase intention, such as ‘likes’, ‘friend likes’, ‘location-based check-in’, ‘comment posting’ and ‘sharing’. The study employed a quantitative approach to collect data through self-administered questionnaires which were distributed online to consumers who reside in greater Cairo. Four hundred and four questionnaires were distributed with a 76% response rate. Regression analysis was conducted to analyse data. Results indicated that Facebook ‘friend likes’ button, ‘location-based check-in’ service, ‘comment posting’ and ‘sharing’ applications positively influence consumer’s intention to purchase products via Facebook, whereas the ‘like’ button has no significant effect on consumer purchase intention. These findings indicate the importance of the social media platform Facebook as an imperative marketing channel to reach the younger consumers. Consequently, e-marketers should create activities that correspond to consumer needs to be able to stimulate sales. Shopping via Facebook can therefore be regarded as a new function of this social media platform in the future.

Thesis: The Effect of Celebrity Endorsers’ Credibility on the Purchase intention of Egyptian Young Consumers

Author: Maged Saleh
Supervisor: Dr May Fahmy
Email: may.fahmy@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between celebrity endorsement and consumers’ purchase intention. This study focused on Ohanian’s (1991) three source credibility dimensions (attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness) which represented the independent variables of the study, whereas, consumers’ purchase intention represented the dependent variable. Each of the three source credibility dimensions were tested to find their impact on consumers’ purchase intention. An Online survey was used in collecting data from respondents. 407 Egyptian undergraduates were taken as a sample for the study. Different types of analysis using SPSS software were conducted such as descriptive statistics, Man-Whitney test, reliability test, linear regression analysis, and correlation analysis to interpret the collected data. The findings showed that the three dimensions; attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness have a significant positive impact on Egyptian young consumers’ purchase intention.

Thesis: The Effect of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) on Customer Satisfaction in the Online Food Industry in Egypt

Author: Mira Khairy
Supervisor: Dr Doaa Ayoub
Email: doaa.ayoub@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of Customer Relationship Management on Customer Satisfaction in the E-food industry in Egypt. The online food industry in Egypt is a market potential for many entrepreneurs. Little research and attention is given to what can be the drivers of customer satisfaction in this sector. The research findings showed that there is a significant relationship between the two variables, in which the customer relationship management affect customer satisfaction in a great extent in the E-food industry in Egypt. Furthermore, this research is unique, it is one of the few studies that is discussing deeply the online grocery not only junk food. This research provides a complete understanding of how to create customer satisfaction that will later retain customers to buy from online food platforms rather than traditional stores.

Thesis: The Effect of Organizational Justice on Psychological Contract Fulfillment at Egyptian Holding Company for Airports and Air Navigation

Author: Nour Ehab
Supervisor: Dr Safaa Shabaan
Email: Safa.shaban@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and the psychological contract fulfillment in Egyptian Holding Company for Airports and Air Navigation. This study explains the effect of the three dimensions of organizational justice which are distributive justice, procedural justice and Interactional justice on psychological contract fulfillment. The independent variable is organizational justice three dimensions while the dependent variable is psychological contract fulfillment. The data is analyzed through SPSS in order to examine and interpret employee responses. A questionnaire was filled by employees in the company in order to gather reliable and valid data. A total of 150 respondents participated in the survey. The end result of the research paper shows that there is a significant relationship between organizational justice three dimensions and the physiological contract fulfillment.

Thesis: Determinants of Dividend Payouts: Evidence from Non-Financial Companies in Egypt

Author: Layal Mukhtar
Supervisor: Dr Amany Hussein
Email: Amani.Hussein@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The purpose of this research is to examine the determinants of dividend payouts among listed non-financial companies in Egypt. In this research, four variables; profitability, liquidity, financial leverage and company’s size are considered as potential determinants of dividend payouts. The sample size in this research is 51 Egyptian companies listed on the Egyptian stock exchange. The sample includes only companies that follow dividend paying strategy. Multiple regression is used to test the relationship between the dividend payout and the four independent variables. The research findings indicated that three variables have a significant relationship with dividend payout which are profitability, liquidity and company’s size. However, financial leverage is found to has insignificant relationship with dividend payout.





Political Science Thesis


Thesis: Child Marriage in Egypt: Between Socio-Economic Barriers and Lack of Political Will

Author: Dina Khaled
Supervisor: Dr Yasmin Khodary
Email: yasmin.khodary@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
In the last decade, millions of young girls were subject to child marriage, which marked the end of their child-hood. Despite that child marriage hinders the accomplishment of various development goals and violates child rights, yet the act is still perpetuated among families, especially the developing countries. The harmful consequences of child marriage not only affect the young girls but also the whole society; whereas child marriage contributes to the unbreakable cycle of poverty, violence against women and gender inequality. The research argues that child marriage is still perpetuated in Egypt due to the socio economic barriers and lack of political will for enforcing a legal framework to eliminate child marriage. In addition to poverty, the strong cultural beliefs, plays an important role in perpetuating such a practice in the society through generations. Therefore, child marriage is considered a cause and a consequence of unequal power relation between men and women. Therefore, the research is using the 'theory of change' and ' culture of poverty' to explain the social structural conditions which facilitate the patterns of inequality and such feelings of oppression and anger, that creates a culture on its own. This research uses mixed qualitative and quantitative methods combining books, articles, international reports and journals to explain the issue of child marriage. Also, the research includes surveys with 123 women and men and in depth three semi-structured and five unstructured interviews with young married girls from poor countries in order to bring in-depth data on Egypt.

Thesis: A Common Ground between Self- Determination & Territorial Integration: The Case of the Kurds

Author: Mariam Mamdouh
Supervisor:  Dr Michael Mulligan
Email: michael.mulligan@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The contradiction between self-determination and territorial integrity within International Law is what led several states to live unfair destiny. The question is to examine the strengths and limitations of self-determination and territorial integrity from an IL perspective: determining how it contributes to the Kurds problem mainly and comparing it to the failures and success of other relevant examples. This study argues that although self-determination is a right for all people under IL, the act of secession should be conditioned by the approval of the parent states.

The study is divided into three chapters aside from the introductory and conclusion Chapter. Chapter one is an overview of the historical roots of the Kurdish blood. It narrates how the Kurds as nation existed and developed through history. Chapter Two is an analysis for the concept of ‘self-determination’ through laws. Chapter Three examines the laws and declaration of ‘territorial integrity’ and ‘secession’. Chapter two and three are the core of the study as they contradict each other; the linkage between them is stated in the concluding chapter particularly as a ‘settlement’ for the Kurdish debate. This study is analyzed through an IL perspective mainly.

The case study is the Kurdish problem particularly as it is considered as contemporary problem that still needs the solution. At the end of this study, a proposed solution is posed that would contain the threats of the Kurdish claim through legal methods. The study is based on qualitative methodology through secondary sources; as it relies on academic journals, books, videos, and UN conventions.

Thesis: The Rise of Russia and China and the end of the American Hegemony: New Cold War?

Author: Nadine Sarwat
Supervisor: Dr Gamal Selim
Email: gamal.selim@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The international system has been under US hegemonic structure for years and now the system is changing. Not only are powers trying to catch up with the United States, but also the United States is declining. This makes the transformation even faster. The outstretch of US power in so many parts of the World as a result of the “war on terror” weakened US global hegemony. Today, there is competition between the United States, Russia, and China in Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. As tensions between the United States, Russia, and China continue to increase, they seem to be drifting into what can only be described as a new Cold War.

Thesis: Model of Integration beyond Multiculturalism and Assimilation: The cases of UK and France

Author:  Sohaila Hassan
Supervisor: Dr Menna Taher
Email: menna.taher@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
Recently, and because of the international division of labour along with the forms of globalization, immigration became a very complex process (Castles & Miller, 2003). However, as a result of huge waves of international immigration and the world becoming more interrelated and interdependent, in most countries 'ethno-cultural diversity' had noticeably raised, prompting synchronous procedures of both localization and globalization. Furthermore, in Europe most of the nations are confronting the developing challenge of worldwide immigration and therefore, it falls basically upon countries to implement and actualize models of integration to transform migration to an opportunity rather than a threat and promote community cohesion (Gurría, 2016). However, the prevailing models of managing cultural diversity have come to their end. They are either as the 'assimilation model' which completely neglect and oppose diversity or as the 'multiculturalist model' that embraces diversity and therefore strengthen the hindrances between different minorities. However, there have been raised doubt about both multiculturalism and assimilation models of immigrants' integration and managing diversity recently (García, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to look at both assimilation and multiculturalism models of integration and how eligible they are to the integration of minorities in Europe. However, the argument of this paper is that both the multiculturalist and assimilationist approach are extreme versions of integration. However, a third model that mange between the two approaches, and accommodates civic equalities along with cultural diversity would be a more accommodating model. This paper will be looking at both the French assimilation approach and the British multicultural approach of integration. This study will be divided into three chapters. The first chapter will be the theoretical frame work, which looks at what are integration, multiculturalism and assimilation models. The second chapter will be addressing the case studies; the French assimilation model and the UK's multiculturalism model. And the third chapter will be examining the middle approach for integration, the findings of the study, and the conclusion.


Economics Thesis 

Thesis: Does trust affect economic growth?

Author: Mariam AbdelKarim Boreay
Supervisor: Dr Rania Miniesy
Email: rminiesy@bue.edu.eg


Abstract
This dissertation aims to investigate the relationship between horizontal generalised trust and economic growth. More precisely it sets to test whether or not trust divided by gender and age group each on its own affects economic growth. More specifically, this dissertation aims to investigate whether or not trust (generalised or divided by gender, or age groups) affects growth in Arab countries. Using an unbalanced panel data set for 91 countries covering the period from 1999-2014, results show that trust, whether generalised or divided by age groups and gender, have a significant positive impact on growth in the general model with the exception of one age group (30-49). For the Arab countries, all trust variables have a significant negative impact on growth. Further investigation showed that Arab countries have special characteristics that led to this negative relationship and those characteristics are not found in other region’s countries in the sample.

Thesis: SMEs’access to finance in Egypt

Author: Menatallah Osama Al-Sayed
Supervisor: Dr Rania Miniesy
Email: rminiesy@bue.edu.eg

Abstract
The objective of this dissertation is to investigate if access to finance is a severe problem for SMEs in Egypt or not. To do this, a survey was conducted and published online in both English and Arabic format. The total responses of the survey were 70 and filtered to be 43 SMEs after removing micro and large enterprises. The main findings of the research are that SMEs in Egypt are mostly owned by males with an age group above thirty years that have a bachelor’s degree in Business, Commerce, or Economics. Most of SMEs are concentrated in two main economic activities manufacturing and trade sector in Greater Cairo especially. Furthermore, most of the SMEs are financing their business by personal equity and private equity. Most of the questioned SMEs are not preferring to deal with banks due to the high interest rate charged, lack of collateral, too much paper to handle, insufficient amount of loan or the maturity and others due to religious reasons. Regarding their contribution, SMEs are contributing to the job creation on average by 1408 job opportunities, thus these SMEs can lower the unemployment rate in Egypt. Moreover, they have contributed to the Egyptian GDP on average by 770.25 Million EGP. This highlighted the importance of the SMEs and the reasons behind improving their performance and enhancing their growth. Therefore, there are some policy recommendations that can improve SMEs’ performance in Egypt such as: human resource development, easing access to finance, providing special programs to finance SMEs in banks, reducing regulations and required documents, improving information between borrowers and banks, improving the regulatory framework, diversifying sources of finance and establishing new ministry that aim to help SMEs.


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